Tag: 浙江桑拿

UC Riverside evolutionary biologist reveals why tall people are more prone to

first_img Source:https://www.ucr.edu/ Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 26 2018For most cancers, risk increases dramatically with age. But what about the effect of having more cells in the body? Might taller people be more prone to cancer because they have more cells?Yes, according to Leonard Nunney, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Riverside, who examined data from four large-scale surveillance projects on 23 cancer categories. Each of these cancer studies established that tall individuals are at an increased risk of cancer, with overall risk increasing by about 10 percent per 10 centimeter (4 inch) increase in height.Other researchers have proposed that that factors acting early in life – nutrition, health, social conditions – independently influence height and cancer risk. But Nunney, a professor of biology, challenges this hypothesis.”I tested the alternative hypothesis that height increases cell number and that having more cells directly increases cancer risk,” he said. “The data strongly supported this simple hypothesis. For most cancers, the size of the height effect is predictable from the height-related increase in cell number.”Study results appear in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.When Nunney performed a comparison of the observed effect of height on the risk of specific cancers for both women and men, he found that the effect of being tall on the risk of thyroid and skin cancer was high in women; for men, skin cancer stood out.”Tall individuals are at increased risk of almost all cancers,” he said. “But skin cancers – such as melanoma – show an unexpectedly strong relationship to height. This may be because the hormone IGF-1 is at higher levels in taller adults.”IGF-1 is a growth factor that is particularly important in early development, Nunney explained, but IGF-1 has also been linked to a higher rate of cell division in tall adults.”If your cells divide more often, then that adds to your cancer risk,” he said. “If skin cells are dividing more rapidly in tall people due to high levels of IGF-1, then this could account for the increased risk for melanoma.”Related StoriesUsing machine learning algorithm to accurately diagnose breast cancerResearchers use AI to develop early gastric cancer endoscopic diagnosis systemNew protein target for deadly ovarian cancerOf the 18 cancers scored in both sexes, Nunney found only four showed no significant increase with height in either sex: pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and mouth.”It is possible that these cancers are more strongly associated with environmental factors,” he said. “It is possible, too, that in these tissues cell numbers do not scale with body size – but this seems unlikely.”Nunney explained that two factors cause increased cancer risk: one is having more cells; the other is having more cell divisions.”If you double the cells, you double the cancer risk,” he said. “If you double the number of cell divisions, you more than double the cancer risk. Living a long time is the worst thing to do if you want to avoid cancer. But then what’s the alternative?”Men are taller than women on average, which may account for why men get more cancer than women.”About a third of this effect can be accounted for by men having more cells,” Nunney said. “But something else is going on to explain the rest.”Breeds of dogs also demonstrate cancer’s link to height, he added.”Smaller dogs get less cancer than bigger breeds of dogs.”Next, Nunney plans to explore how different cancers are being prevented in the body by looking at big long-lived animals.”If all else is equal, large, long-lived animals should experience higher incidence of cancer than small, short-lived animals,” he said. “After all, larger animals have more cells, more divisions, and more mutations. But they show no such tendency to be more cancer prone. This is called Peto’s paradox, and I argue it can be resolved through adaptive evolution, namely, that species subject to selection for larger body size and greater longevity evolve additional layers of cancer suppression. I’m interested in exploring how as a species gets bigger and lives longer, it evolves additional barriers to cancer.”last_img read more

Continue reading "UC Riverside evolutionary biologist reveals why tall people are more prone to"

Experts develop a list of competencies in antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Nov 12 2018Experts from across Europe have developed a set of competencies in antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship, using a structured consensus procedure. This ESCMID-led study has resulted in a list of competencies that represent the minimum standards that all independent prescribers of antimicrobials should reach to practice according to principles of responsible antibiotic use. The list of competencies is highly relevant for educators, regulators and professional bodies throughout Europe, as well as for individual prescribers.The competencies set comprises 35 competency points divided into three sections: Core concepts in microbiology, pathogenesis and diagnosing infections; Antimicrobial prescribing; and Antimicrobial stewardship.Related StoriesStudy: Surveillance for antibiotic-resistant bacteria continues to be core focus for healthcare facilitiesFinger-prick blood test could help prevent unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for patients with COPDInterdisciplinary approach reduces the use of broad spectrum antibiotics”Despite widespread agreement that we need to use antibiotics responsibly, until now, there has been no consensus on what the minimum standards for responsible use are according to which prescribers in Europe should practice”, explains Dr. Oliver Dyar, a researcher in public health at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, who led the study and is treasurer of the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial StewardshiP (ESGAP).”We hope that this work will help guide those who train doctors, nurses and pharmacists to prescribe antibiotics, and at the same time support the regulators and professional societies that are responsible for setting and maintaining standards” Dr Oliver Dyar said, adding “These competencies could play an important role in harmonizing approaches in antimicrobial stewardship in Europe. We also believe that most of the competencies are relevant for prescribers in other contexts, and it is essential that on a global basis we invest in ways to improve on how we use antibiotics.”The study used a RAND-modified Delphi consensus procedure and involved 65 experts from 24 European countries, most of whom were infectious diseases specialists, clinical microbiologists, or pharmacists. This expert panel reviewed a draft set of competencies which was originally developed by a multidisciplinary panel in the UK, and had since been adapted to the broader European context through consultation with ESCMID Study Groups. Each competency point was assessed for relevance for all independent prescribers in Europe, and the expert panel was able to suggest additional competencies. After three assessment rounds and a face-to-face meeting, there was very high agreement (98%) with the final competencies set.Over the coming years ESCMID and ESGAP will support efforts to implement these ESCMID generic competencies in antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship. Source:https://www.escmid.org/fileadmin/src/media/PDFs/2News_Discussions/Press_activities/2018/Dyar_Press_release_09NOV2018.pdflast_img read more

Continue reading "Experts develop a list of competencies in antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship"

FDA approves antibacterial drug to treat travelers diarrhea

first_img Source:https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm626121.htm Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Nov 17 2018The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Aemcolo (rifamycin), an antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of adult patients with travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli), not complicated by fever or blood in the stool.”Travelers’ diarrhea affects millions of people each year and having treatment options for this condition can help reduce symptoms of the condition,” said Edward Cox, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.Travelers’ diarrhea is the most common travel-related illness, affecting an estimated 10 to 40 percent of travelers worldwide each year. Travelers’ diarrhea is defined by having three or more unformed stools in 24 hours, in a person who is traveling. It is caused by a variety of pathogens, but most commonly bacteria found in food and water. The highest-risk destinations are in most of Asia as well as the Middle East, Africa, Mexico, and Central and South America.Related StoriesEbola spread to Uganda could threaten international healthMathematical model helps quantify metastatic cell behaviorComplement system shown to remove dead cells in retinitis pigmentosa, contradicting previous researchThe efficacy of Aemcolo was demonstrated in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 264 adults with travelers’ diarrhea in Guatemala and Mexico. It showed that Aemcolo significantly reduced symptoms of travelers’ diarrhea compared to the placebo.The safety of Aemcolo, taken orally over three or four days, was evaluated in 619 adults with travelers’ diarrhea in two controlled clinical trials. The most common adverse reactions with Aemcolo were headache and constipation.Aemcolo was not shown to be effective in patients with diarrhea complicated by fever and/or bloody stool or diarrhea due to pathogens other than noninvasive strains of E. coli and is not recommended for use in such patients. Aemcolo should not be used in patients with a known hypersensitivity to rifamycin, any of the other rifamycin class antimicrobial agents (e.g. rifaximin), or any of the components in Aemcolo.The FDA granted Aemcolo a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) designation. QIDP designation is given to antibacterial and antifungal drug products that treat serious or life-threatening infections under the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) title of the FDA Safety and Innovation Act. As part of QIDP designation, the Aemcolo marketing application was granted Priority Review under which the FDA’s goal is to take action on an application within an expedited time frame.The FDA granted approval of Aemcolo to Cosmo Technologies, Ltd.last_img read more

Continue reading "FDA approves antibacterial drug to treat travelers diarrhea"

Podcast KHNs What the Health Is health spending the next big political

first_imgPlus, for extra credit, the panelists recommend their favorite health policy stories of the week they think you should read too:Julie Rovner: NBC News.com’s “FDA Approves Drug for Dogs Scared by Noise,” by Maggie FoxMargot Sanger-Katz: The Washington Post’s “An Experiment Requiring Work for Food Stamps Is a Trump Administration Model,” by Amy GoldsteinRelated StoriesStudy estimates health care costs of uncontrolled asthma in the U.S. over next 20 yearsJohns Hopkins experts release digital health roadmapSupplements claiming to boost brain health are ‘too good to be true’, warn expertsJoanne Kenen: The Atlantic’s “The CRISPR Baby Scandal Gets Worse by the Day,” by Ed YongRebecca Adams: The New York Times’ “Why Hospitals Should Let You Sleep,” by Austin FraktAlso mentioned in this episode:The New York Times: “1,495 Americans Describe the Financial Reality of Being Really Sick,” by Margot Sanger KatzKaiser Health News: “No Cash, No Heart. Transplant Centers Require Proof of Payment,” by JoNel AlecciaCBS News: “High Cost Has Many Diabetics Cutting Back on Insulin,” by Serena GordonTo hear all our podcasts, click here.And subscribe to What the Health? on iTunes, Stitcher or Google Play. This article was reprinted from khn.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente. The Trump administration outlined last week what type of waivers it is willing to consider for states’ ACA markets. Options include changes in who gets premium subsidies and how much they receive, and making short-term insurance plans that are not as comprehensive as current marketplace plans eligible for subsidies. Any changes are likely to end up in court, as have most of the revisions that the Trump administration has proposed. In Wisconsin and Michigan, Republican legislatures are seeking to restrict what the new Democratic governors can do to change GOP policies on Medicaid and challenges to the ACA. A recent study has highlighted that health problems can create financial hardships well beyond the illness. For example, loss of income from a debilitating illness can make paying other bills very difficult and sometimes other family members must give up their jobs to be caregivers. The Republican-led Congress was unable to repeal the Affordable Care Act in 2017, but the Trump administration continues to implement elements of the failed GOP bill using executive authority. The latest change would make it easier for states to waive some major parts of the health law, including allowing subsidies for people to buy insurance plans that don’t meet all the law’s requirements.Meanwhile, in states that are transitioning from Republican governors to Democrats, GOP legislators are using lame-duck sessions to try to scale back executive power and lock in some key health changes, such as work requirements for Medicaid enrollees.And there is growing evidence that even with health insurance, patients who use significant amounts of medical care are increasingly unable to afford their share.This week’s panelists for KHN’s “What the Health?” are Julie Rovner of Kaiser Health News, Margot Sanger-Katz of The New York Times, Joanne Kenen of Politico and Rebecca Adams of CQ Roll Call.Among the takeaways from this week’s podcast: Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Dec 6 2018last_img read more

Continue reading "Podcast KHNs What the Health Is health spending the next big political"

Posterior parietal cortex plays crucial role in making decisions research shows

first_imgAll the neuronal data we examined in our past experiments gave us the impression that this area of the brain was involved in processing the meaning of visual images during decision making. Now we find that indeed, when we temporarily shut the activity down in that part of the brain it really does affect the sensory parts of decisions.”David Freedman, PhD, professor of neuroscience, UChicago Freedman says the new study provides an opportunity for neuroscientists to rethink the brain mechanisms involved in decision-making, visual categorization, and sensory and motor processing. The work could also lead to a deeper understanding of how the brain interprets the things we see in order to make decisions. Understanding this process in detail will be critical for developing new treatments for brain-based diseases and disorders which affect decision making.”These results show that the brain’s parietal cortex is an important hub for guiding decisions, so now we’re even more motivated to move ahead and try to work out the details of neural circuits in this part of the brain that actually carry out these cognitive functions,” he said. Source:University of Chicago Medical Center Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jul 12 2019New research by neuroscientists at the University of Chicago shows that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), an area of the brain often associated with planning movements and spatial awareness, also plays a crucial role in making decisions about images in the field of view.”Traditionally this part of the brain has been thought to be involved in controlling spatial attention and planning actions. There has been less attention paid to how much of a role this brain area plays in processing the visual stimuli themselves,” said David Freedman, PhD, professor of neuroscience at UChicago and the senior author of the study, published this week in Science. “Here we were able to show that it plays an important role in making sense of the things we see, perhaps even more so than its role in planning your next action or directing your attention.”Freedman and Yang Zhou, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher, trained monkeys to play a simple computer game in which they reported their decisions about different types of images displayed on a computer monitor by moving their eyes toward a designated target. For example, if the animals were shown a pattern of dots moving up and to the left, they were supposed to move their eyes toward a green spot. If the dots were moving to the opposite direction, they should move their eyes toward a red spot.For the new study, the researchers tested whether a specific region of the PPC called the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) was directly involved in guiding these decisions. They gave the animals a drug which temporarily halted neural activity in the LIP area, then they had the monkeys perform the same tasks. While the drug was active, the monkeys’ decisions about the visual patterns they viewed were impaired; once the drug wore off, their decisions returned to normal.The researchers also recorded activity in the same pool of neurons once the drug had worn off and found that activity in that area of the brain was indeed strongly correlated with the same kinds of decisions which had been impaired during the experiments.Deeper understanding of how the brain interprets things we seeRelated StoriesWearing a hearing aid may mitigate dementia riskNew therapy shows promise in preventing brain damage after traumatic brain injuryStudy provides new insight into longitudinal decline in brain network integrity associated with agingThe findings provide new context to help understand why a 2016 study by another group in Nature reported that deactivating parts of LIP seemed not to have any impact on decision making. That study only examined LIP’s role in motor planning-;such as the decision about whether to look leftwards or rightwards. In contrast, the current study shows that LIP is more involved in making sense of the visual images that the subjects are viewing, rather than deciding which actions they should take next.last_img read more

Continue reading "Posterior parietal cortex plays crucial role in making decisions research shows"

Power grid fluctuations hidden in audio recordings proved a powerful tool for

The ‘electrical network frequency’ (ENF) of power grids is centered around 50 or 60 Hertz, and is picked up in audio recordings as a background hum. The ENF shifts up and down randomly, which provides each recording with a unique fingerprint that can be compared to the long-term records captured continuously and maintained at forensic labs.”The random fluctuations are consistent across different places within the same power grid,” explains team member Lilei Zheng. “As a consequence, recordings captured in different places at the same time will have ENF fingerprints showing the same fluctuations.”By visually inspecting the ENF, human investigators can reliably match recorded fluctuations to a time in the long-term records, but this is a laborious task best done by a computer. In response, the I2R team developed a similarity criterion called bitwise similarity (bSim) that mimics the way humans judge the similarity of two signals.The team tested bSim by using it to identify the timing of 187 audio recordings made around Singapore using various mobile phones.They found that bSim greatly outperformed previous similarity metrics, which were thrown into doubt by small deviations even when the general shapes of the signals were clearly similar. “bSim enables us to focus our attention on the overlapped parts instead of being drawn away by the deviated parts,” says Zheng.”The science behind ENF pattern matching has been proven to be reliable, like fingerprints and DNA,” says Thing. “It has been used in courts in various jurisdictions and the cases cut across many different crimes. We hope to extend our work from audio recordings to videos, which not only contain audio but may also enable us to ‘see’ the ENF through variations in lighting.””This innovative solution towards audio authenticity verification developed by I2R has already proven itself in actual use, and we are excited about the potential it holds,” says a representative of Singapore Police Force. Rare audio of indigenous languages saved by invention 100 years later Audio and video recordings are important sources of evidence in criminal investigations, especially as more electronic devices are in use now than ever before. However, for recordings to be admissible, investigators often need to determine the time they were made, which can be difficult. Now, a team led by Vrizlynn Thing at the A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), in collaboration with the Singapore Police Force, has developed an impressive new system that reliably estimates the time of recordings by identifying small fluctuations in the frequency of the electrical power grid. Citation: Power grid fluctuations hidden in audio recordings proved a powerful tool for police forensics (2018, February 14) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-02-power-grid-fluctuations-hidden-audio.html Explore further More information: Lilei Zheng et al. Time-of-recording estimation for audio recordings, Digital Investigation (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.diin.2017.06.001 The I2R A*STAR team together with their collaborators from SPF. Credit: A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Provided by Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore read more

Continue reading "Power grid fluctuations hidden in audio recordings proved a powerful tool for"

Ethanol blending with petrol to double at 8 in current season Oil

first_imgDharmendra Pradhan, Union Petroleum Minister   –  File photo In June, the Centre approved Rs 4,440 crore soft loans for building ethanol production capacity to absorb the excess cane. Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said that ethanol blending with petrol is likely to double to 8 per cent in the current season as a better price is being offered by oil marketing companies.The minister also assured additional soft loans to mills for expanding the ethanol capacity.Addressing the 84th annual general meeting of sugar industry body ISMA, he said the government has taken a number of steps in the last four years to bring a “paradigm shift” in the Rs 1 lakh crore sector.“Blending of ethanol with petrol has reached 4 per cent from 1-1.5 per cent in the last four years. In 2018-19 sugar year (October-September), the blending level will reach 7-8 per cent,” Pradhan said.The minister said, “Although buying ethanol is costly for oil marketing companies, because of hike in procurement price, the Centre has taken a holistic view to boost ethanol production for farmers welfare as well as to meet our energy requirements.”Pradhan said the Centre spends Rs 8-10 lakh crore of foreign exchange to meet energy demand by importing crude oil, LNG and other products.He said that the Centre has provided soft loans to the first group of applications for creating ethanol capacity and it is committed to sanctioning loans for the second group. In June, the Centre approved Rs 4,440 crore soft loans for building ethanol production capacity to absorb the excess cane. It will bear interest subvention of Rs 1,332 crore over a period of five years, including moratorium period of one year.According to industry sources, the Centre may provide an interest subsidy of about Rs 1,800 crore in the second round and it may also allow standalone molasses-based distillery to participate in this soft loan programme.Later in September, the Central Government approved an over 25 per cent hike in the price of ethanol produced directly from sugarcane juice for blending in petrol in a bid to cut surplus sugar production and reduce oil imports.The Centre had launched the programme EBP in 2003 on pilot basis which was subsequently extended to 21 states and four Union Territories to promote the use of alternative and environment-friendly fuels.But the target of 10 percent blending of ethanol in petrol was never met. Since 2014, the Central Government notified an administered price for ethanol. The move significantly improved the supply of ethanol during the past four years.The volume of ethanol procured by public sector OMCs has increased from 38 crore litres in ethanol supply year 2013-14 to an estimated 150 crore litres in 2017-18.Earlier, ISMA President Gaurav Goel said the ethanol blending level will reach 8 per cent in 2018-19 as orders for 260 crore litres have been received from OMCs. For 10 per cent blending, there is a requirement of 330 crore litres of ethanol.Goel exuded confidence that blending level would reach 10 per cent by 2020 and 20 per cent by 2022.The ISMA president demanded that the Centre should link sugarcane price to sugar rates as a long term solution for this sector. Goel said there would be no cane arrears and industry would not seek any fund from the Centre if this demand is met. He said the sugar production is likely to fall to 31.5 million tonnes in the current marketing year as against 32.5 million tonnes in the previous year. The annual domestic demand is 26 million tonnes. The opening stock was 10.7 million tonnes as on October 1. Goel said that mills have agreed to export 1 million tonnes of sugar out of 5 million tonnes quota earmarked by the Centre for 2018-19. He recommended a strict action against mills which do not export sugar. COMMENT COMMENTS Published on petroleum December 07, 2018 SHARE SHARE SHARE EMAILlast_img read more

Continue reading "Ethanol blending with petrol to double at 8 in current season Oil"